1. Introduction


The world we currently reside in have a shortage of fresh water. Out of 70% of water, only 3% is fresh water, and 1% out of that 3% is available to us as the rest is frozen in glacier icebergs. We are trying to understand on how acidity level in water affects the amount of fresh water. pH affects most chemical and biological processes in water, and it is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the distribution of species in aquatic habitats.

Different species flourish within different ranges of pH, with the optimal for most aquatic organisms falling between pH 6.5-8. U.S. EPA water quality criteria for pH in freshwater suggest a range of 6.5 to 9. Fluctuating pH or sustained pH outside this range reduces biological diversity in streams because it physiologically stresses many species and can result in decreased reproduction, decreased growth, disease, or death. As fresh water is normally collected from the rivers, we are focusing our research on the pH level of the Ulu Pandan river and how (if) changes in the pH level caused by nearby residents living along the river affects the ecosystem in the river.

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